Wednesday, January 16, 2013

Types of Organic Reactions

1. Organic compounds undergo four main types of reaction, namely addition, substitution, elimination and rearrangement.

    (a) Addition reaction
  • Occurs when two reactants react to form one product.
  • Involves compounds with multiple bonds (unsaturated). The reaction results in breaking of one pi (π) bond to form two sigma (σ) bonds. 
       

    (b) Substitution reaction
  • Involves replacing one atom or group with another. 
       

    (c) Elimination reaction
  • Involves the elimination of two neighbouring atoms from saturated molecules, with the formation of multiple bonds.
  • The reverse of addition reaction.
       

    (d) Rearrangement
  • Occurs at the transition stage of a reaction involving carbocation.
  • Occurs when a single reactant reorganises the bonds or atoms.
       

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